saitis
dasawyis
isken
:

 

 

helga zep‑la‑ruSi

 

mSveniereba adamianis aucilebeli pirobaa

 

 

 

wyaro:

Helga Zepp-LaRouche,

Beauty Is a Necessary

Condition of Man,

EIR, August 8, 2003, pp. 46-57.

 

 

 

Targmna niko guniam

 

 

 

helga zep-la-ruSi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsi:

o   {Sesavali}

o   rok-kontr-kulturis romantikuli fesvebi

o   f. Slegeli—"Zalauflebis moyvaruli civi cinikosi"

o   xelovnebis Sileriseuli standarti

o   berZnuli klasicizmi da adamianis Rirsebis dabadeba

o   ologarqiis brZola germanuli klasicizmis winaaRmdeg

o   romantikosi politikosebi, nordikuli miTebi da hitleri

o   daprogramebuli ugunureba

o   klasikosebi adamianis romantikuli idealis winaaRmdeg

o   klasikuri meTodi

o   "ibikusis weroebi"

 

 

 

 

Jurnal «Fidelio»-s redaqciisagan:

 

helga zep-la‑ruSma es moxseneba gaakeTa lindon la-ruSis axalgazrduli moZraobis sakadro Semadgenlobis ordRiani sakvalifikacio Sekrebaze, 2003 wlis 18 Tebervals. es Sexvedra uSualod moyva Sileris institutis internacionaluri mmarTveli komitetis daxurul samuSao Sexvedras—institutis "yovelwliuri saprezidento SabaT-kviris" konferencias [institutis prezidentia qalbatoni helga zep_la‑ruSi—n.g.]. misi moxseneba uSualod moyva mravalsaaTian gacxovelebul diskusiebs. igi waradgina lindon la-ruSis axalgazrduli moZraobis liderma miSel lernerma. aq moyvanilia am moxsenebis redaqtirebuli teqsti.

mTargmnelisagan: Cven gamovtoveT wamyvanis is sityvebi, romliTac man waradgina momxsenebeli. garda amisa, gamovtoveT avtoris teqstis is fragmentebic, romelic momxeneblis darbazTan cocxali kontaqtis Sedegia. (n.g.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

{Sesavali}

Sinaarsisken

 darbazSi daisva SekiTxva: "xom ar gamoCnda Cvens cxovrebaSi raime iseTi, romelic raimenairad Caenacvleba klasikur xelovnebas? rogoraa SesaZlebeli ar gvesmodes klasikuri xelovneba—rac sinamdvileSi asea—da am dros mivsdevdeT raRac sxva mdares da Tanamedroves?" sirTule marTlac mdgomareobs imaSi, rom adamianebs ara aqvT naTeli Sexeduleba klasikur xelovnebaze.

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad, upirveles yovlisa vapireb, klasikuri xelovneba ganvixilo imis pirispir, ramac sazogadoeba miiyvana Tanamedrove sulier gapartaxebamde. esaa e.w. "Tanamedrove kultura", romelic sinamdvileSi sulac araa kultura. Cven mogvixdeba ukan daxeva droSi—epoqaSi, roca romantizmma wamoiwyo brZola klasikuri xelovnebis winaaRmdeg.

msoflio sazogadoeba, istoriuli TvalsazrisiT dRes imyofeba Zalze mniSvnelovan periodSi. adamianebma ar ician arc klasikuri xelovneba da arc romantizmi. Tu nebismier adamians dausvamT SekiTxvas "Tqvenis azriT, ra aris romantizmi da romantikosebi?", TiTqmis yvela maTgani gipasuxebT: "es isaa, ris gamoc me da Cemi Seyvarebuli erTmaneTs yvavilebs vCuqniT wminda valentinis dRes"; an, "esaa sanTlis is mSvenieri Suqi, roca me da is erTad vnadimobT, mxolod me da is" da misT.

Teziss, romlebic Cems am gamosvlaSi wamovwie win, SeiZleba gaeces Zalze damajerebeli pasuxi: kulturis Tanamedrove simaxinje, misi garyvnil-gadagvarebuli formebi, sabolood iman gamoiwvia, rasac dasabami mieca romantizmis epoqaSi.

Zalze saintereso movlenaa Semdegi. didi britaneTis finansuri ologarqiis organom Financial Times, ori wlis wineT gamoaqveyna statia saTauriT: "Dark Age or Renaisance"? ("bneleTis epoqa Tu renesansi"). statiaSi naTqvamia: individualizaciam anu individis gaRmerTebis (deification) kultma, romelic gamowveulia Tavisufali bazris ekonomikiT, globalizaciiT da a.S., migviyvana sazogadoebis tradiciuli agebulebis rRvevamde da sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis gagebis sayovelTao moSla-ganadgurebamde. iqve weria: Cven axla mivaRwieT im zRurbls, romelSic triumfs ganicdis sayovelTao individualizaciis es utopia. mizani miRweulia: Cven vimyofebiT utopiis tyveobaSi. garegnulad es tyveoba TiTqos mSvenieria. magram aris erTi problema: is yars. am kultis saboloo Sedegi, klasikuri xelovnebis sasikvdilo sarecelze dawvenaa. amasTanave, arc aravis Seswevs Zala, jiutad misdios raime saxelovnebo standarts.

veTanxmebi «Financial Times»-is am statiis paToss, es namdvilad asea. sul cota bolo oci wlis ganmavlobaSi, ar yofila erTi SemTxvevac ki, rom menaxos Sileris dadgma, TviT germaniaSic, da amas CemSi ar gamoewvios Rrma Sinagani diskomforti. germaniis dRevandel TeatrebSi moRvaweoben e.w. "Regietheather". es sityva me ar vici inglisurad. ZiriTadad esaa igive "regisseur"—warmodgenis wamyvani; igi iRebs klasikur piesas da dgams mas sakuTari interpretaciiT. bolo 30 welia, es "Regietheather" akeTebs igives: es xalxi SiSvldeba scenaze, Sardavs scenaze, asruleben seqsualur aqts—madloba RmerTs mxolod Teatraluri TamaSiT. magram cnobilia "beibi-bumeris"[1] erTferovneba, isini naturalurad da yvelas Tvalwin igives akeTeben; TiTqos am mxriv scenaze axali araferia.

yovelTvis vambobdi da axlac gavimeoreb: nu daangreven es batonebi Tu qalbatonebi klasikur xelovnebas; bolos da bolos, Seqmnan sakuTari. Tu maTi survilia rom garyvnilebi iyvnen, dae weron TavianTi piesebi, rogorc surT. vemudarebi—Tavi daanebon klasikur xelovnebas.

magram, ara mxolod Teatri da poeziaa maxinji, aramed aseTivea Tanamedrove arqiteqturac¼ is mxolod agurisa da minis nakrebia da ar Seicavs araviTar arqiteqturas. uSnoa kulturis sxva sferoebic. magaliTad, saSinelia Tanamedrove musika. rok-musika, goTuri roki, SiSis momgvrelia. aseTivea hip-hopic[2], xolo popi[3], yvelaze uaresia maT Soris.

lindonis[4] gavleniT, aseT rameebs ar vuyurebdi, karga xnis ganmavlobaSi. Semdeg, raki axalgazrdoba sul amas uyurebs, gadavwyvite "aqtiurad Semeswavla es yvelaferi". Cemi motivi iyo: gamego, aris Tu ara Semoqmedeba “hip-hopSi” anu “rapSi”. sabolood mivedi uryev daskvnamde—araviTari Semoqmedeba!

magaliTisaTvis ganvixile britni spirsi. namdvilad gaognebuli davrCi roca aRmovaCine, rom misi sasceno leqsikoni sul raRac oTxmociode sityvisagan Sedgeboda. am 80 sityviT es qalbatoni Tavdajerebulad irwmuneboda, rom mxars uWers sikvdiliT dasjis SenarCunebas. ratom? imitom rom am «tipebma» SemdegSic ar gaimeoron igive. britni wavida. samagirod, Cven gvyavs "Atomic Kitten" ("pawawina fisunia"). gvyavs Sakira da sxva maTi msgavsni.

kargad daakvirdeT yovelive amas. es yvelaferi marTlac romantikulia, savsebiT romantikuli. amas cotaTi qvemoT dagisabuTebT. marTlac, amas wineT madonam gamouSva pop-video (pop-video), romelSic mas klaven eleqtro-skamze, magram igi winaaRmdegobas uwevs. is gaorebuli pirovnebaa da ueWvelad Sizofrenuli. is erTdroulad kargi da cudi gogoa, srulebiT ugunuri. jenifer lopezic amuSavebs Tavis "pop-videoebSi" sikvdiliT dasjis Temas. qristina augilieras, am "sufTa gogos", bolos gauCnda survili iyos "sayovelTao kaxpa" (total whore). didi italieli varsklavi eros ramazoti scenaze TamaSobs nekrofilias cxedrebTan, maT mkvdar TavebTan; da a.S. es ukve cudze uaresia.

 

 

 

rok-kontr-kulturis romantikuli fesvebi

Sinaarsisken

Tu Tqven yvelafer amas amCnevT da meTanxmebiT, maSin SegekiTxebiT: rogor moxda yovelive es? darwmunebuli var yovelive daiwyo romantikosebis SeteviT veimarel klasikosebze da maTi mcdari ideebis gavrcelebiT. Znelia iTqvas iyo Tu ara imTaviTve romantikuli moZraoba —e.w. "adreuli romantikosebi, romlebic swrafad gadaiqcnen politikur romantikosebad (is sxva dros moxda)—"houli aliansis" (Holy Alliance[5]) epoqis finansuri oligarqiis miznebis Semsrulebeli agentebi? Tu isini mxolod Serekili adamianebi iyvnen, romelnic politikurma reaqciam TavianTi miznebisaTvis wamowia wina flangze?

Tavis "esTetikur werilebSi" (Aesthetical Letters) Silerma daadgina, rom xelovnebis yvelaze ufro keTilSobili da srulyofili qmnilebebi politikur TavisuflebaTa Sedegia. is mxolod maSin gamoCndeba, roca TiToeul pirovnebas sakuTar TavSi ganviTarebuli aqvs idealuri adamiani. adamianis Sinagani, ganzogadoebuli idealisadmi gaTanabreba, pirovnebis arsebobis diadi amocanaa. adamiani kiTxulobs, raSi mdgomareobs misi sicocxlis mizani? amaze pasuxi aseTia: rac SeiZleba axlos mivides SesaZlebel idealTan. amave dros mTavari sakiTxia individis gakeTilSobileba, pirovnebis gaumjobeseba. Sileri xazgasmiT ambobs, rom adamianis yovelgvari srulyofis safuZveli mSvenierebaa.

"Kallias"-Si[6] Sileri cdilobs mSvenierebis gansazRvrebas gonebis safuZvelze. esaa mSvenierebis inteligibeluri cneba. mis Tanaxmad, mSveniereba aris Tavisuflebis mTavari idea adamianSi (free principle in man).

"sinatife da RirsebaSi" (On Grace and Dignity) Silerma brZana: "mxolod siyvaruli warmoadgens Tavisufal emocias, vinaidan mas warmoSobs Cveni RvTiuri buneba. is TavisTavadi absoluturi sididea, rac gamoisaxeba graciaSi da RirsebaSi. siyvaruli kanonmdebelia, is RmerTia CvenSi, romelic eTamaSeba Tavis sakuTar anarekls, SegrZnebaTa samyaroSi".

Sileris azriT, rodesac xelovani qmnis mSveniers, es xelovani aris RmerTi. xelovani RvTis saxea, saxe Semoqmedisa, romelic ganagrZobs Semoqmedebas, roca es xelovani qmnis musikas, wers poetur nawarmoebs, Txzavs did dramas. "meaTe werilSi" ("esTetikuri werilebidan") Sileri ambobs "mSvenierebis raobis zust cnebas unda CavwvdeT abstraqciis meSveobiT. mSveniereba danaxul unda iqnas, rogorc kacobriobis aucilebeli piroba".

es ewinaaRmdegeba "ganmanaTleblobis" velur Sexedulebas, romlis Tanaxmad, adamiani mxolod egoizmiTaa motivirebuli, Tavisi sakuTari interesebiT da a.S. amis sawinaaRmdegod, jer kidev [mose] mendelsonma da [gotfrid] lesingma safuZvlianad brZanes, rom xelovnebiT SeiZleba aRvzardoT adamianis midrekileba sayovelTao wesrigisaken, gavakeTilSobiloT igi. ase rom, roca vcxovrobT sazogadoebaSi, romelic araa mSvenieri—aseTi iyo sazogadoeba, romelSic uxdebodaT cxovreba britanel ganmanaTleblebs, aseTivea amerikis dRevandeli sazogadoeba—mSvenierebis nakleboba niSnavs rom kacobrioba gadagvardeba da civilizacia daingreva.

kerZod, Sileri da goeTe cdilobdnen epovaT esTetikis is zogadi, universaluri kanonebi, romlebic misi Senobis Siga karkass qmnis. romantikosebis TiToeuli Seteva, mimarTuli mSvenierebis—xelovnebis mTavari sagnis—winaaRmdeg, Zalze gamanadgurebeli Sedegebis momtani iyo. amdenad, arsebobs pirdapiri gza, mimavali adreuli romantikosebidan—rogorebic arian tiki[7] da Zmebi Slegelebi[8] — filosofiur anu e.w. "gviandel romantikosebamde". maT Sorisaa savini[9], romelic erTerTi iyo imaTgan, vinc bunebrivi samarTali (natural law) Secvala precendentuliT (case law); aqve arian niburi[10], nicSe, vagneri da karl Smidti[11]; da movediT uSualod nacistebamde. arsebobs pirdapiri xazi, romlis saTaveSi dganan kanti, Slegeli, novalisi[12], tiki da e.t.a. hofmani[13], romelic miemarTeba Sopenhaueramde, hegelamde, froidamde, frankfurtis skolamde, agreTve, dRes arsebuli simaxinjis kultis fsiqoloogiis uRrmes fesvebamde. me vapireb mogiyveT am sakiTxze, detalurad.

mendelsonma da lesingma, laibnicis moZRvreba daicves ganmanaTleblobisaken, agreTve, ingliseli da frangi ganmanaTleblobis agentTa mcdelobisagan—SemoeparebinaT niutonis ideebi iseTi adamianTa xeliT, rogorebic iyvnen eileri da mopertiu[14], berlinis akademiidan. am akademiis mmarTvelobas ekuTvnoda kanti, kenigsbergidan.

mendelsoni cnobili iyo rogorc me-18 saukunis sokrate. man ara marto win wamoswia platonis "dialogebi", aramed werda TanamedroveTaTvis da laparakobda ukvdavebaze. vidre is cocxali iyo, kanti ver bedavda misi naazrevisadmi srul Setevas. magram mendelsonis gardacvalebisTanave, kantma ganaxorciela Seteva gonebis ideisadmi. kanti gonebas ganixilavda rogorc "uaryofis uaryofas". man goneba aqcia mxolod deduqciur manqanad. kanti ambobda, rom adamianSi Cabudebuli Tavisuflebis Tesli, misi ZiriTadi naklia. amiT man sakuTari Tavi daayena pompanacis[15], sarpisa, lokisa da sxva maT msgavsTa tradiciebis sibrtyeze.

am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli roli ergo fridrix rairxarts (Reichart)—kompozitors, romelic simpaTiiT iyo ganwyobili goeTes mimarT, radgan aman isurva rom swored mas daewera musika misi leqsebisaTvis. raixartma daagzavna mTel germaniaSi kantis Txzulebebi. amis Sedegad, SemTxveviT, Silersac Cauvarda xelT kantis "kritikebi"—"praqtikuli gonebis kritika", "wminda gonebis kritika", "gansjis kritika". roca maT gaecno Sileri, kerZod—rom xelovneba SemTxveviTi movlenaa, Zalze gaRizianda. Silerma brZana: SexedeT am kants. rogorc Cans mas Zalze cudi bavSvoba qonda, radgan ver daunaxavs ra aris mSveniereba. is ver Cawvdomia—ras warmoadgens xelovneba. kanti wers mxolod monebisaTvis da ara ojaxSi gazrdili adamianebisaTvis. Sileris azriT ojaxSi gazrdili adamianebs aqvT mSvenier suli.

kantis moZRvreba ukve iyo mniSvnelovani nabiji im Sinagani kavSiris rRvevaSi, romelic arsebobda sikeTes, WeSmaritebasa da mSvenierebas Soris. sabednierod, kantis nawerebi arc aravis esmis da arc aravis auRelvebs, radgan isini ise mosawyenia da ise CaxlarTuli. amaSi dameTanxmebiT Tuki gicdiaT misi romelime wignis wakiTxva. magram es nawerebi iyo is qvafenili, romlis erTi qvidan meoreze xtunaobisas, novalisma, tikma, Zmebma Slegelebma da e.t.a. hofmanma miiRes Teoretikuli momzadeba. ase rom, am avtorTa mavne nawerebma, kantis moZRvrebis saxiT, poves noyieri niadagi gasajejileblad.

rac Seexeba fridrix Slegels, Tqven albaT es arc gagigiaT, magram igi asrulebda mniSvnelovan rols am procesebSi; is ar iyo poeti da metic, is sulac ar iyo raime mniSvnelovani figura. 1795 wels, Tavis nawerebSi, man romantikosebis ideebi miuyena berZnuli poeziis Seswavlas. am ukanasknelSi, misi sityvebiT, araa "unikaluri klasikuri formebi", magram aris poeziis usazRvro SesaZleblobebi. fridrix Slegelma, pirvelma kulturis istoriaSi, daayena simaxinjis sakiTxi, rogorc centraluri.

 

 

 

f. Slegeli—"Zalauflebis moyvaruli civi cinikosi"

Sinaarsisken

f. Sileri Slegels pirvelad Sexvda 1792 wels. am Sexvedram Silerze mZime STabeWdileba datova. is ambobda "es rogori Zalauflebis moyvare da civi cinikosi yofila". Sileri Tavis megobar korners[16] werda (¼), rom Slegeli sruliad dabneuli da talants moklebuli iyo.

1796 wels Silerma dawera Tavisi saxelganTqmuli "gulubryvilo da sentimentaluri poeziis Sesaxeb"[17], romelsic ganxilulia gansxvaveba antikur da Tanamedrove poezias Soris. Sileri midis daskvnamde, rom arcerT maTgans ar gaucia yvelaferze pasuxi. aucilebelia ufro maRali donis poezia, vinaidan arafers ar ZaluZs amoZirkvos mSvenierebis potenciali kacobriobidan. amis miRweva SesaZlebelia antikuri da Tanamedrove poeziis kombinirebiT". Sileri amatebs: "rac ufro poeturia TiToeuli maTganis esa Tu is nimuSi, miT naklebad Seicavs defeqtebs". ase rom, sakiTxi dgas ara imaze, romelia ukeTesi, Tanamedrove Tu antikuri poezia, aramed—aris Tu ara maTi nimuSebi poeturi, kargi leqsebi. es yvelaferi bunebrivia exeba dRevandel poeziasac—aris is kargi?

Slegeli imave wels, roca man dawera Tavisi Tezisebi berZnul poeziaze, acxadebda pretenzias, daecva berZnuli poezia TanamedroveTagan. man Tqva, rom Tanamedrove poezia araa mSvenieri, is ubralod sainteresoa. mravali fiqrobda rom igi utevda Tanamedrove poezias, rogorc sruliad gadagvarebuls, rom TiTqos mas surda klasikuri xelovnebis gacocxleba. Sileris publikaciam "gulubryvilo da sentimentaluri poeziis Sesaxeb" Zalze gaaRiziana Slegeli, radgan mixvda, rom misma naSromma azri dakarga, stambidan gamosvlamde. ori wlis Semdeg daweril "liceumSi" (Lyceum), Slegeli 180 gradusiT icvlis mimarTulebas da totalurad utevs klasikur xelovnebas, rogorc gaugebarsa da sasacilos. Semdeg Seudga Tavis TanamedroveTa SexedulebaTa Secvlas romantikuliT.

ori wliT adre, berZnul poeziaze TezisebSi igi werda: "Tu mSvenierebas da xelovnebas gaaCnia mkacri kanonebi, isini unda moqmedebdes yvela droSi. am TvalsazrisiT, mTel Tanamedrove xelovnebas ar gaaCnia raime mniSvneloba. Tu es ukanaskneli mZafr grZnobebs uRitinebs da aRZravs mxolod vulgarul seqsualur survilebs, maSin saqme gvaqvs dabal, gadagvarebul xelovnebasTan. rogorc Cans, gmirTa nakleboba Tanamedrove poeziis erTerTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa. sxva Tvisebebia: arev-dareuloba, ara-kanonzomiereba, dauokebeli wyurvili axal-axali, rac SeiZleba mZafri siuJetis mimarT, romelic yovel axal jerze kidev ufro Zlierdeba, radgan moTxovnileba matulobs. axali berdeba; rac iSviaToba iyo, Cveulebrivi xdeba; aRgzneba cxreba. sabolood gemovnebas surs mxolod aRviraxsnili garyvnileba da yvelaferi erTad iRupeba".

sinamdvileSi aseTi iyo TviT Slegelis piradi cxovreba—am momentidan igi Tavqve daeSva. is gaxda meternixis[18] piradi mdivani da sinamdvileSi Caikarga araraobaSi. mSvenierebis cnebis "sainteresoTi" SecvliT man starti misca, klasikuri xelovnebis taxtidan xaliCis gamoclis process.

"saintereso" cxadia yovelTvis axali unda iyos. ar arsebobs yvelaze ufro "saintereso". mZafri survili arasodes kmayofildeba. Tavad Slegeli werda: "survili me maqcevs Jinianad. xolo Jinmoreuls miCndeba axali survili". maSasadame Jini da survili arasodes kmayofildeba. saWiroa ufro axlis mudmivi eskalacia, radgan ar arsebobs umaRlesi axali, ar arsebobs umaRlesi simaxinje.

amis sapirispirod, Silerma brZana rom arsebobs umaRlesi mSveniereba—Tqven es iciT misi leqsidan "xelovanni" (The Artists). bolo strofSi, is mimarTavs xelovnebaSi moRvawe adamianebs: "Tqven, yvelaze Tavisufali dedis laRo Svilebo! gaswieT win mtkice nebiT da ibrZoleT mxolod im gvirgvinisaTvis, romelic Tavs adgas Suq-mfrqvevi alagis umaRles mSvenierebas".

magram, ratom ar arsebobs umaRlesi simaxinje da umaRlesi interesi, maSin roca arsebobs umaRlesi mSveniereba? imitom rom Silers mSveniereba esmis rogorc Sinagani kanonzomierebis Tavisufali gamoxatva. amasTanave, mSveniereba warmoadgens harmonias grZnobadsa da gonebas Soris, magram grZnobadis samefoSi. ase rom, mSveniereba aris raRac Tanmimdevruli da ara uwesrigo. amave gagebiT, WeSmaritad poetur samyaroSi, yovelgvari disharmonia qreba da umaRlesi erTianoba miRweulia. vidre arsebobda sicxade mSvenierebaze, aSkara iyo isic, rom mSveniereba, WeSmariteba da sikeTe erTi da igivea.

ar yofila SemTxveva manamde, rom Tavs dasxmodnen klasikuri xelovnebis principebs. Slegelma Seutia swored mis aqsiomebs. aqedan moyolebuli, nabij-nabij daiwyo xelovnebis dacema da momzadda is niadagi, romelzec aRmocenda Tanamedrove xelovnebis sruliad gansxvavebuli kategoria. rasac Slegeli akeTebda, gamoxatulia TviT mis Semdeg sityvebSi: "mSveniereba zogadad, romelic Seicavs amaRlebuls (sublime)—rac igive mSvenierebaa, oRond viwro azriT—agreTve yovelive mimzidveli, momxiblavi Tu macTunebeli, RmerTis didebul gamovlinebebs warmoadgens".

es ki iyo Zalze dabali gemovnebis xumroba, vinaidan SeiZleba asec daivas sakiTxi: "Zalian kargi. magram ratom aris amaRlebuli da mSvenieri erTi da igive?" SilerisaTvis mSveniereba da amaRlebuli sulac araa erTi da igive. es imitom, rom amaRlebuli gamoasxivebs adamianis sxvadasxva bunebas. is araa harmoniuli, is ara gavs mSvenierebas da harmonias, magram is gamoasxivebs adamianis grZnobadi bunebis winaaRmdegobas. es imitom rom igi iTxovs brZolas. mxolod brZolis Semdeg, mxolod mas Semdeg, roca adamianma daipyro is, rac mas xels uSlida umaRlesi principebis mimarT misi identurobis miRwevaSi, is dgeba mowodebis simaRleze; magram amadRlebuli rodi emTxveva mTlianobaSi romelime harmoniuls. is saWiroebs saSineli agoniis gadalaxvas.

yvelafer amaSi Slegeli erTi nabijiT iyo daSorebuli "amaRlebuli simaxinjis" (sublime ugliness) da "maxinji amaRlebulis" koncepciaTa SemoRebisagan. bunebrivia, swored aqedan ganagrZo man.

cxadia, es ar iyo Rrma idea. misi mniSvneloba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom Seicavda romantizmis Teoretikul safuZvels. fridrixis Zma, vilhelm august Slegeli, Seudga am problemaTa swavlebas universitetSi, 1798 wlidan. es ZiriTadad im principis amosavali wertilia, razec daiyvanes yvelaferi xelovnebaSi: is rac axalia, rac aRizianebs Tqvens grZnobaTa organoebs, rac ufro sainteresoa adre arsebulTan SedarebiT, xelovnebaa. magram es yvelaferi absoluturad arafer SuaSia.

simaxinje dasaSvebia klasikur xelovnebaSic, magram sruliad sxva formaSi. amis magaliTs Semdeg mogaxsenebT. is mxolod dasaSvebia, rogorc mxatvruli saSualeba, raTa zogjer miRweul iqnas didi efeqti, amasTanave mxolod garkveuli da stilistikurad dadgenili xerxiT.

Slegeli ki cdilobda mSveniereba da simaxinje ganeTavisebina erTi da igive doneze. amas ki saqme miyavda xelovnebaSi mSvenierebis moSlamde. maxinji saintereso gaxades. didi simaxinje Tanamedrove xelovnebis gasaRebia. rogorc Sedegi, ukve mTlianad gaqra xelovnebidan universaluri WeSmariteba.

 

 

 

xelovnebis Sileriseuli standarti

Sinaarsisken

amis sapirispiro azri gamoTqva, Silerma peizaJisti mxatvris matisonis[19] kritikaSi. esaa Zalze Rirebuli naSromi, sadac dadgenilia xelovnebis Taobaze Zalze mniSvnelovani da naTeli standarti. Sileri ambobs Semdegs: xelovnebas SeuZlia Tavis auditoriaze didi zegavlenis moxdena; mis xelSia sulis Sinagan grZnobaTa da emociaTa gasaRebi; amitom, vidre xelovani gabedavs warsdges auditoriis winaSe, man Tavisi Tavi unda aamaRlos idealur adamianamde. vidre auditoriisaken daiZvrebodes, igi unda gakeTilSobildes—iqces adamianTa modgmis Rirseul warmomadgenlad. sul cota im momentSi, roca Semoqmedi Txzavs poetur nawarmoebs, wers musikas, qmnis did mxatvrul tilos an qmnis did qandakebas, igi flobs uzarmazar zegavlenas, misi qmnilebis mier Sekrebil auditoriaze. mas mxolod maSin SeuZlia sakuTar Tavs uwodos xelovani, Tu es gavlena inteligibeluria da keTilSobili.

rogoraa SesaZlebeli amis ganxorcieleba? ra aZlevs mxatvars, poets, an kompozitors imis gambedaobas, rom warudges auditorias, romelic Sedgeba asobiT an aTasobiT adamianisagan; rogor SeuZlia mas iyos darwmunebuli Tavisi moqmedebis efeqturobaSi, radgan adamianebi ase gansxvavdebian erTi-meorisagan—TiToeul maTgans aqvs sxvebisagan gansxvavebuli reaqcia, STabeWdileba? Sileri ganmartavs: ara, xelovani absoluturad unda iyos darwmunebuli efeqtis Taobaze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi man Tavis Tavs saerTod ar unda uwodos xelovani. erTaderTi gza, riTac SeiZleba amis miRweva, Semdegia: xelovani unda amaRldes idealur adamianamde, Semoqmedebis, momentisaTvis mainc, da ilaparakos universalur WeSmaritebebze. magram amis miuxedavad, efeqti miRweul unda iqnes Zaldatanebis gareSe, ar iyos moralisti da ar gamoiyenos pirovnebis iZulebis raime forma. es yvelaferi mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli, roca poetma Tavisi Tavi aRamaRla adamianis modgmis tipiuri warmomadgenlis donemde da misi Tema absoluturi WeSmaritebaa.

romantikosebi amas yovelives uaryofen. idealizaciis am ideas isini upirispireben Teorias aracnobieris gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb. maTi azriT, genia aris ara es idealizacia, aramed fantazia axal SesaZleblobebze—mieciT ufleba sinamdviles rom ganisvenebdes lamaz ocnebebSi; xelovnebis efeqti, mastimulirebeli narkotikis an msubuqi anesTeziis msgavsad, damokidebulia Tqvens mdgomareobaze im dRes.

SeadareT es Silers. igi ambobs, rom "mxolod mSvenierebis ciskris WiSkridanaa SesaZlebeli Sesvla mSvenierebis samflobeloSi." SilerisaTvis xelovneba aris idea kognitivur ZalTa gasaviTareblad, individis gasakeTilSobileblad. romantikosebi ki zustad amis sawinaaRmdegos amboben—dae idinoso yvelaferma Tavis nebaze; ra mniSvneloba aqvs, Tu ras moimoqmedebs Tqveni avadmyofi fantazia, miuSviT igi Tavis nebaze.

me es yvellaferi sakuTar Tavze ganvicade, roca zogjer vkiTxulob Cemi mtrebis nawerebs—magaliTad, samuel hantigtoni[20] da bjezinski[21]. Tuarada, saWiroa icode, rogor azrovnebs es xalxi. amave mtkivneuli mizezebis gamo, rogorc gind gagikvirdeT, wavikiTxe tikis da e.t.a. hofmanis13 mravali Txzuleba. erTi ram SemiZlia giTxraT—es yvelaferi daujerebelia. SesaZlebelia Tqvenc ki agiRiaT odesRac raime maTi nawerebidan, raTa gagegoT erTxel da samudamod, Tu ras warmoadgens romantizmi.

berZnuli klasicizmi da adamianis Rirsebis dabadeba

Sinaarsisken

CavuRrmavdeT yovelive amas ufro Rrmad. germaniis klasikuri periodi iyo uzarmazari wingadadgmuli nabiji evropaSi, sinamdvileSi ki mTeli civilizaciisaTvis. ratom?—ra situacia iyo maSin? evropas gadatanili qonda ocdaaTwliani omi da igi sruliad dangreuli iyo. kultura gadagvarebuli iyo—volteri, ganmanaTlebloba. franguli klasicizmi mimarTuli iyo romanuli periodisaken.

germaniis klasikurma periodma ganaxorciela giganturi Zalisxmeva berZnuli klasicizmis principebis aRsadgenad. ratomaa berZnuli klasicizmi rogorc orientiri, ase absoluturad mniSvnelovani? homerosi sinamdvileSi pirveli iyo, vinc adamiani ganixila rogorc Tavisufali pirovneba, romelic gonebas eyrdnoba. miuxedavad amisa, Tavad homerosi rodi iyo mTalad aseTi. berZenma klasikosebma—sofoklem, esqilem da sxvebma, gadadges nabiji win. maT Soris sinamdvileSi yvelaze didi iyo esqile. dramaSi "promeTeosi", esqile mTavar gmirs promeTeoss dasawyisSi warmogvidgens adamianur yofierebaSi; aq isaa RmerTi, romelic akritikebs sxva RmerTebis ugunurebas.

magram, evropul civilizaciaSi mxolod platonTan gamoCndeba adamiani, romelsac gaaCnia unari Cawvdes ideebs, inteligibelurs. saWiroa gavacnobieroT, Tu rogor fiqrobda adamiani yvela adrindel imperiebSi—mesopotamiaSi, babilonSi da a.S. maTTan yvelaferi magiuri da demonuri iyo; iyvnen qurumebi, romlebic kiTxuloben raRac orakulebs; adamianebs ar qondaT warmodgena sakuTar raobaze; isini crumorwmuneni iyvnen; xdeboda maTi manipulacia; gaxveulni iyvnen iracionalur ZalebSi. ZiriTadad, mxolod am klasikuri berZnuli periodis meSveobiT Cndeba imis gaazreba, rom adamians SeuZlia SeimuSavos sasargeblo ideebi realuri samyaros Sesaxeb da rom es samyaro, rogoric is aris, ganasaxierebs gonierebas, mSvenierebis formaTa saxiT. es isaa, rasac Sileri "xelovanSi" uwodebs kacobriobis dabadebas.

berZenma klasikosebma agreTve saTave daudes adamianis Rirsebas—iSva idea adamianis moucilebel uflebaTa Sesaxeb. berZnuli klasicizmi ideaTa namdvili samSobiaro iyo. me didi megobari var sxva kulturebisac—miyvars Cinuri, induri da antikuri egviptis kultura. magram unda vaRiaro—idea, rom adamians aqvs niWi da SesaZlebloba warmoqmnas fizikuri samyaros Sesaxeb sasargeblo cnebebi da rom es procesi mudmiv srulyofaSia, daibada mxolod aq, klasikur saberZneTSi. me rodi vambob, sxva kulturebs ar miuZRviT Zalze sasargeblo wvlili, magram berZnebis wvlili unikaluria msoflios istoriaSi.

es yvelaferi gamoacocxla italiurma renesansma, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca Sedga florenciis kreba[22] (Council of Florence). sabWos Zalisxmeva mimarTuli iyo orTodoqsaluri da romanuli eklesiebis xelaxali gaerTianebisaken. pirvel wlebSi berZnuli eklesiis mamebma Tan moitanes platonis Txzulebebi. isini iTargmna sxva evropul enebze. am Txzulebebma mTeli evropa marTlac ganawyo eklesiaTa gaerTianebisaken. amas ki Tavis mxriv moyva kulturuli optimizmis arnaxuli amofrqveva da italiuri renesansis mSvenieri miRwevebi, romlebmac Seqmnes safuZveli momdevno 500 wlisaTvis.

germanuli klasikuri periodi, romelic ganapirobes mendelsonis da lesingis Sromebma, Tavis udides dones aRwevs  Sileris, humboltisa da goeTes saxiT. msgavi donisaTvis kacobriobas ar miuRwevia arc manamde da arc mis Semdgom. amas me vambob [germaneli] da mzad var ukan davixio. magram uTuod sworia, rom am periodma warmoSva adamianis Sesaxeb umaRlesi Sexeduleba. sakmarisi ubralod gavixsenoT beThovenis mecxre simfonia—Sileris "oda sixarulze" da beThovenis mSvenieri musikis diadi duRabi: «adamiani adamianisTvis gaxdeba Zma».

vilhelm fon humboldti iyo germaniis klasikuri periodis horizontze aRmarTuli giganti. mas surda ganaTlebis sistemaSi daenerga Sileris ideebi, romelSic TiToeul moswavles eqneba Sexeba msoflio istoriasTan, riTac is miiRebda srulyofil ganaTlebas. warmoidgineT mxolod rom bolomde ganxorcielebuliyo humboldtis reforma da im Soreuli epoqidan moyolebuli moswavleebs mieRoT aseTi ganaTleba! maSin saWiro ar iqneboda is yvelaferi, romelTa inicirebasac axla vcdilobT "lindon la‑ruSis axalgazrduli moZraobis" meSveobiT. sinamdvileSi humboldti sazogadoebas sTavazobda axalgazrdul moZraobas, romelic daefuZneboda universalur ganaTlebas. mas Zalze mokle xniT mieca saSualeba [rogorc ministrs], ganexorcielebina Tavisi ideebi.

ologarqiis brZola germanuli klasicizmis winaaRmdeg

Sinaarsisken

humboldtis ideebma oligarqia meta aaRelva: Tu yoveli bavSvi gaxdeba sulierebiT aRsavse da ganaTlebuli, es iqneboda maTi dasasruli. germanias xSirad utevdnen. roca amisi mizezi iyo ebraelTa genocidi da nacizmi, salaparako araferia. magram, sxva SemTxvevebSi, srulebiT darwmunebuli var, erTerTi mizezi, ris gamoc es xdeboda, iyo is umdidresi kultura, romlebic iwyeba baxiT, gaivlis mocarts, beThovens, Suberts, Sumans, bramss¼; is aseve iwyeba lesingiT, gaivlis mendelsons, Silers, goeTes da sxva araerT aRniSvnis Rirs saxels. garkveuli azriT es iyo umdidresi periodi, msoflio kulturis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi.

gavrcelda Tu ara es kultura germaniis gareT? diax. amis magaliTad SegviZlia moviyvanoT amerika. is TiTqmis dapyrobili qonda am kulturas. evropaSi Seviwroebuli milionebi gadavida amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. me-19 saukuneSi, ar iyo arcerTi profesori amerikaSi, romelsac an TviTon ar qonodes ganaTleba miRebuli germaniaSi, an maswavlebeli mainc ar yolodes germaniaSi ganaTleba-miRebuli. jer kidev, 1905 wels, Sileris gardacvalebis 100 wlisTavze, rodesac CikagoSi daidga "vilhelm teli" germanulad, mas daeswro 4000 mayurebeli, romelTac es ena esmoda. germanuli kultura iyo amerikis integraluri nawili. amitomac iTvleba Secdomad, tedi [Teodor] ruzveltisa da vudrou vilsonis CarTva e.w. pirvel msoflio omSi, Tanac arasworad arCeul mxares. aman daangria germanul-amerikuli kulturuli kavSiri. Tuarada, Tu Tvals gadavavlebT me-19 saukunes, es kavSiri gamsWvalavda amerikaSi yvelafers.

am umdidres periodSi, romelic sinamdvileSi emTxveva vaimarel klasikosTa da mis uSualo momdevno xanas—esaa napoleonis sawinaaRmdegod mimarTuli erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli omebis xana, oligarqia seriozulad iyo SeSinebuli. maT afrTxobda ganaTleba. magaliTad, jariskacTa umravlesoba, romlebic frontze midiodnen, ubeSi atarebda Sileris leqsebis mcire krebuls mainc, sulieri simtkicis gasaZliereblad. Tu waikiTxavT maT mier Sin gagzavnil werilebs, am periodis sxva ubralo adamianTa werilebs, darwmundebiT rom rigiT adamianebs maSin meti ganaTleba qondaT, gacilebiT meti, vidre Tanamedrove politikosebs.

romantikosi politikosebi, nordikuli miTebi da hitleri

Sinaarsisken

ras iqmodnen romantikosebi? maT starti aiRes rogorc poeturma romantikosebma, magram male iqcnen politikur romantikosebad. maT ara marto istoriis mimarT qondaT axirebebi, aramed ganaviTares Taviseburi midgoma mTlianad Sua saukuneebze. es gamoixata SemdegSi. romantikosebma Tvali CamoaSores berZnul klasikas da ganacxades: "es umniSvneloa. Cveni yuradReba amieridan mimarTuli iqneba nordikuli miTologiisadmi". maTi yuradReba mimarTuli iyo raRac auxsnel sikvdilis mZafr wyurvilze, sikvdilis survilze (death-wish). maTi yuradReba mimarTuli iyo cxovrebiseul fantaziaTa usazRvro waqezebisaken. magaliTad, hainrix hainem[23], romelmac dawera SesaniSnavi wigni romantikosTa skolaze, romelzec Tqvenc migiwvdebaT xeli, brZana Semdegi: "ra aris im gasaocari kuriozis mizezi, romelic aiZulebs maT [romantikosebs] iyuron istoriis saflavSi? aseT saqcieli yovelTvis mJRavndeba im mokle periodis bolos, romelic win uZRvis katastrofebs". kargadaa cnobili, Tu rogori swori gamodga haines es sityvebi. haine gafrTxilebas iZleoda, rom es adamianebi Zalze saSiSni arian, sazogadoebaze maTi zegavlenis gamo. isini safrTxes uqmnian samSoblos.

ra moxda mainc? 1790-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi, roca Sileri muSaobda goeTesTan erTad da qonda mimowera fon humboldtTan, ienaSi, Slegelebis garSemo—ufro zustad august vilhelmis garSemo—Tavi moiyara garkveulma jgufma. am ukanasknelma colad SeirTo karolina biome (Böhme), romelsac Sileri uwodebda "demonur qals", radgan mas satanurad momxibvleli Zala gaaCnda. Semdeg meore Zmam, fridrixma iqorwina doroTi veitze [qaliSvilobis gvari mendelsoni], mose mendelsonis qaliSvilze. am ukanasknelma yvelas aCvena, rom Svilebi yovelTvis rodi amarTleben xolme mSoblebis imedebs. Silerma maSinaTve gawyvita maTTan kavSiri, radgan isini misTvis autanlebi iyvnen. Zalian male, Tavis mxriv esenic Seikrnen [Silerisadmi] dapirispirebul jgufad. gamosces Jurnali «Horen», romelSic qveyndeboda klasikuri mwerlebi; masala manamde mogrovebuli qonda Silers. maT agreTve gamosces «Athenäum», romelSic werda Slaiermaxeri[24]; is gaxldaT religiuri fundamentalisti, pet robertsonis (Robertson) msgavsi. aqve werdnen novalisi, tiki da sxv.

roca novaliss gardaecvala 15 wlis sacole, is gadavarda zemoxsenebul sikvdilis fantaziebSi. magaliTad, man dawera "himni Rames". Semdeg is wers politikur naSroms "qristianoba, anu evropis erToba", romelic iyo mowodeba axali imperiis Seqmnisaken, romelSic imperatori ganaxorcielebda mmarTvelobas mefeTa sistemis meSveobiT, eSkroftis (Ashcroft) modelis msgavsad. naSromis Tanaxmad, eklesiis meTauri, rogorc wesi darwmunebuli unda yofiliyo imaSi, rom mecnieruli codnis gavrceleba ar Seqmnis xalxSi rwmenas, rom TiToeuli maTgani unda gaxdes ineligenti. naSromis mixedviT, es iqneboda saSineleba, romelsac omi unda gamoecxados. goeTes, romelic dasawyisSi eflirteboda romantikosebs, radgan eseni yvelgan avrcelebdnen mis naSromebs, novalisis ideebi Zalze Sors Setopil azrebad miaCnda, radgan misTvis cnobili iyo namdvili istoria da mudam kargad amCnevda mis falsifikaciis SemTxvevebs.

amis Semdeg romantikosebi Seudgnen minezingerTa menestreluri simRerebis gandidebas, iseve rogorc nubelungebis simRerebisa. yvelaze metad august vilhelm (Slegeli) irwmuneboda, rom Tqmuleba nibelungebze SeiZleba SevadaroT homerosis iliadas.

Sileri da goeTe sruli zizRiT ganewyvnen nordikuli miTebis mimarT. isini irwmunebodnen, rom am miTebis personaJebi an demonebia, an jojoxeTis jujebi, magram ara RmerTebi. Sileri ambobda, rom nordikuli miTebi Zalze specifikuri da erovnulia, maSin roca berZnuli miTologia adamians ganixilavs, rogorc universalurs da drois gareSe arsebuls. Sileri jer kidev maSin iZleoda gafrTxilebas, Tu sanamde SeiZleba saqme miiyvanos yvelaferma aman. dRes ukve yvelam viciT sad migviyvana nordikulma miTebma, vinaidan es miTebi daudo safuZvlad TavianT Semoqmedebas vagnerma: parsifali, loengrini, tristani da izolda. aqedan ki iRebs saTaves nacionalisturi idea da swored eseni iqca nacistebis sasaxlis musikad. ase rom, romantizmi iyo nacizmisa da hitleris wyaro.

daprogramebuli ugunureba

Sinaarsisken

am yvelafers giyvebiT ara istoriis gadmocemis mizniT, aramed viTarebaSi gasarkvevad. SeiZleba gsmeniaT "romantizmis cisferi vardebis" Sesaxeb, SeiZleba ara. es aris romantizmis simbolo, rac ukan gvabrunebs novalisis novelisaken "ofterdingeli hainrixi". misi gmiri axalgazrda kacia, romelic mTel dros loginSi atarebs, ocnebebSi. dro da dro mas eufleba fantaziebi—cudi, incesturi da Cxubis fantaziebi; sabolood ki yvavilebi, cisferi yvavilebi, gadaiqcevian misi sacolis saxed. amas ara aqvs dasasruli, rogorc sapnis operas, esaa cnobierebis azvirTebuli morevi.

minda sxva magaliTic moviyvano. tikma dawera raRaca, romelsac zogjer uwodeben "mSvenier ekberts" (The Fair Eckbert). raindi ekberti cxovrobs tyeSi, martod-marto, Tavis colTan bertasTan erTad. maTTan modis stumari valteri. barta mas uyveba Tavisi cxovrebis istorias: roca is rva wlis iyo mamam cema, ris gamoc gaiqca saxlidan. is midis tyeSi, sadac mas Seifarebs martoxela moxuci qali. barta uvlis mis frinvelebs. erTxel roca moxuci Sin ar iyo, man moipara frinveli da margaliti. frinveli amRerdeba. barta axrCobs mas. roca bolos da bolos morCeba Txrobas, valteri ambobs: "me SemiZlia warmovidgino, rogor mokaliT Tqveni ZaRli. amaze barta avad xdeba da kvdeba. aRSfoTebuli ekbarti klavs valters. Semdeg modis kidev erTi stumari, hugo. ekbarts eufleba SiSi, rom man icis misi saidumlo. igi xedavs, Tu rogor gadaeqca saxe hugos jer valteris, xolo Semdeg im moxuci qalis saxed.  es ukanaskneli ambobs: "me viyavi valteri, me viyavi hugoc, xolo barta Seni da iyo". ekbarti giJdeba da iRupeba.

amas imitom giyvebiT, rom gansajoT ra azri Zevs amaSi? aq aris gaorebuli mama, romelmac mwared cema rva wlis gogona, romelic amis Sedegad iqceva Sizofreniul pirovnebad, romelsac midrekileba aqvs ugunuri qmedebebisaken. ai swored aseTia mTlianobaSi romantikuli poezia.

sxva novelaSi, romelsac "runenbergi" ewodeba, mcenareebi da maTi fesvebi stirian, roca vinme fexs daabijebs miwas maT fesvebs zemoT. Tu vinme amoTxris maT, isini wyevla-krulviT ikleben midamos. es yvavilebi da xeebi wina gardasul samyaroTa cxedrebia. es sinamdvileSi princi Carlia—cnobilia rom is Camoyalibebuli romantikosi iyo. e.t.a. hofmanma13 suliT avadmyofTa TavSesafars miaSura, raTa Seeswavla mis pacientTa istoriebi, raTa Semdgom isini safuZvlad daedo Tavisi nawerebisaTvis.

Tu waikiTxavT dRevandel fsiqoanalitikur da fsiqiatriul literaturas, maTi avtorebi Riad acxadeben rom amodian e.t.a. hofmanis memkvidreobidan, kerZod misi ideidan Tavisufal asociaciaTa Sesaxeb. isini aRiareben, Tavisufal asociaciis cnebis msgavsad, Tanamedrove fsiqologiis yvela cneba—mentalur energiaTa urTierT-gardaqmna, reaqciis Camoyalibeba da misTanebi—saTaves iRebs romantikosTa nawerebidan. zigmund froidi, "fsiqologiis mamad" wodebuli, ambobs: mis Teorias da romantikosTa ukmayofilebas civilizaciis mimarT, saerTo fesvebi aqvs, rom piradad igi yvelafers misganaa davalebuli. cnobilia sxva adamianebic, r.d. lengis (Laing) msgavsni, romelnic monawileobdnen [h.g.] uelsis da [bertran] raselis wreSi, sadac Seiswavlidnen iseT raRacebs, rogoricaa "rogor gamoviwvioT fsiqozi". lengi muSaobda taviStokis fsiqo-fsiqiatriuli institutisaTvis (Tavistock Institut); is iyo eqsperti halucinaciis gamomwvev preparatTa sferoSi; is monawileobda studentebis fsiqikaze gaxmaurebul manipuliaciaSi, MK-Ultra da LSD preparatebis[25] gamoyenebiT;  es ukanasknelni gonebaze moqmedebs narkotikebis msgavsad da iwvevs maTi ganwyobilebis cvlilebas informaciuli zemoqmedebis gareSe.

goeTe sakmaod sainteresodaa warmodgenili inglisur publikaciaSi, romelsac ewodeba Foreign Quarterly Rewiew (ucxoeTis kvartaluri mimoxilva). aq is ambobs, rom e.t.a. hofmanis13 nawerebiT eqimebi unda dainteresdnen da ara literaturis kritikosebi. goeTe imeorebs haines naTqvams: vinc ki odesme dafiqrebula Tu rogor ibadeba cnebebi, man unda icodes im ugunurebaTa Sesaxebac, romlebic am nawerebis zegavleniT warmoiqmneba. haine ambobs: "imis nacvlad, rom romantikos poetTa am erTobliobas usmino, ukeTesia waxvide Saratonis suliT avadmyofTa TavSesafarSi"—SaratonSi iyo cnobili fsiqiatriuli klinika, maSindel safrangeTSi. mogvianebiT goeTe daaskvnis: klasika gonivrulia, xolo romantizmi—ugunuri.

 

 

 

laokonis da misi vaJebis drakonTan brZolis skulptura. goeTes Sexedulebis sapirispirod, romantikosebi Slegeli da novalisi sayveduriT aRniSnavdnen, rom personaJebi ufro met tanjvas unda gamosaxavdnen, tkivilis eqstazSi.

 

 

 

klasikosebi adamianis romantikuli idealis winaaRmdeg

Sinaarsisken

mokled mimovixiloT msoflmxedvelobis ori samyaro. ra aris antikuri periodis adamianis ideali? is srulyofili adamiania, adamiani sazRvrebis gareSe, romelic TandaTanobiT ufro srulyofili, ufro mSvenieri xdeba, romelic aviTarebs Tavisi pirovnulobis yovel potencialur mxares. romantikosebisaTvis adamiani centri rodia; is mxolod erTerTi elementia usazRvro bunebaSi, samyaros usasrulo okeaneSi.

Sileris Tanaxmad, raki poezia sulis Sinagani saidumloebaTa gasaRebia, xelovani unda iyos keTilSobili pirovneba. is unda ganasaxierebdes adamianis ideals. misi Tema  unda iyos sayovelTao da utyuari. poeti ar unda cdilobdes iyos popularuli, igi ar unda daeSvas dabla, uferul xalxurobamde. piriqiT, poetma unda SeZlos Tavisi auditoriis done awios zeviT, idealuramde. amdenad, xelovani unda imyofebodes umaRles doneze da ar unda daeSvas dabla, masis popularul gemovnebamde; man unda ganaviTaros adamianebi maTi warmosaxvis TamaSis  gziT.

Tavis mxriv, novalisi ityoda: es araa mTavari, popularuloba ufro didi mizania. xelovans SeuZlia misdios rasac unda, miyves dinebas, imas rac xalxs moswons. romantikosebi acxadeben, rom yovelgvari winaswari Canafiqri da wesi amoraluria. es iqneboda Cveni gamosaxvis Tavisuflebis SezRudva. cxadia, isini sityvas "Tavisufleba" gamoiyeneben srulebiT sxva azriT, vidre klasikosebi. Sleiermaxrma brZana: "ar arsebobs WeSmariteba. yovelgvar rwmenas imdeni fasi aqvs, ramdenic meores".

Sileri da goeTe cdilobdnen epovaT xelovnebis marad-momqmedi kanonebi. maT miaCndaT, rom xelovanebi maTi mixedviT unda iRwvodnen, umaRles doneze. romantikosebis azriT ki poetis pirobiToba umaRlesi kanonia. fridrix Slegelma dawera: "zeca gvicavs maradiuli muSaobisagan".

   klasikosi poetisaTvis cxadi iyo Semdegi. is miaRwevs WeSmarit poeturobas, roca SeZlebs gamosaxos maradisobis Tanadrouloba (simultaneity of eternity). magaliTad goeTe ambobs: "yovel wams aqvs usasrulo mniSvneloba, vinaidan is warmoadgens mTeli maradisobis saxes".

fridrix Slegeli, Tavis saSinel piesaSi "Lucinda" patetikurad werda: "oh, usaqmurobav da sizarmacev". is rCevas iZleoda, usaqmuroba da drois tarebis fenomeni gamxdariyo mecnieruli Seswavlis saqme, rom adamianebs unda emuSavaT amisaTvis, daeweraT wignebi da a.S.

Slegels qonda savsebiT gansxvavebuli warmodgena, lakoonis cnobil qandakebaze. laparakia im skulpturaze, romelSic gamosaxulia laokooni da misi ori Svili, romelnic erTad ebrZvian Sxamian drakonebs—xelovnebis mSvenier nawarmoebze, romlis personaJebi moZraobaSi imyofebian, im momentSi, roca isini Zleven tkivils. imis miuxedavad, rom es iyo dramatuli situacia—vinaidan Wrilobebi Zalze mtkivneuli iyo, xelovanma laokooni da misi Svilebi mainc gamosaxa Zalze TavSekavebuli saxiT, romlebic tkivilebs Cumad itanen. aman gamoiwvia didi debatebi. debatebis Semdeg, mogvianebiT, lesingma amis Taobaze Tqva: Tu Tqven daxatavT mtiral saxes Ria piriT, es iqneba uSno naprali. SeuZlebelia gamosaxoT eqstremaluri tkivili. magram amis gakeTeba SesaZlebelia, Tu personaJebi moTminebasac Tan gviCveneben. sxva SemTxvevaSi es iqneboda ise uSno, rom saerTod ver mivaRwevT mizans.

goeTem brZana: laokoonis skulpturaSi mniSvnelovania humanurobis yvelaze keTilSobilurad gamosaxva; es miRweul iqna mxolod imitom rom moqandakem SeZlo tkivilis Cveneba, mis personaJTaA moTminebasTan erTad. novalisma ki piriqiT gviTxra: "ara! isini unda yvirodnen kidev ufro metad. tkivili unda iqces eqstazad".

romantikosTa dioniseuli eqstazi swored is iyo, rac maT surdaT. Sileri ki eqstazis Sesaxeb ambobs: roca adamiani eqstazSi imyofeba, misi pirovnuloba daSlilia da ganadgurebuli. pirovnebas Zlevs misi emociebi. is amovardnilia sakuTari Tavidan da sadRac mis midamoSi farfatebs, is ar ekuTvnis sakuTar Tavs.

amitomac, isev Sileri gveubneba: roca saWiroa aRvadginoT eqstazis mdgomareobaSi myofi pirovnebis TviT-identuroba, germanelebi vityviT: "Mann muβ in sich gehen"—saWiroa dabruneba sakuTar TavSi; imyofebiT ra sakuTari meobis midamoSi, Tqven unda daubrundeT sakuTar Tavs, sakuTar pirovnebas. romantikosebs ki ar gaaCniaT interesi, pirovnebis am aRdgenis mimarT. maT surT adamianebi amovardnen sakuTari Tavidan da daexetebodnen sadRac Soriaxlo.

klasikuri meTodi

Sinaarsisken

aseTive meTodologiurad gansxvavebuli midgoma arsebobs am or msoflmxedvelobas Soris, sikvdilis sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi. hiolderlaini (Hölderlein) saubrobda sikvdilis dauokebel wyurvilze, sikvdilis survilze, romlis mizania bnel ufskrulSi gadavardna. novalisi wers: sicocxle sikvdilis dasawyisia; sicocxle arsebobs sikvdilis gulisaTvis. SilerisaTvis, romelsac mravali avadmyofoba awuxebda—mSvenieri da amaRlebuli sikvdilze ufro maRla idga. igi didi bedisweraa, romelic adamians aRamaRlebs imis miuxedavad, gaanadgurebs Tu ara igi mas. gavixsenoT Sileris mSvenieri leqsi "Tanaziaroba" (Belonging).

maSasadame, sakiTxi dgas aRsasrulis Sesaxeb. Tqven iciT, Tu rogori zedmiwevniT skurpulozulia Sileris dramaTa kompozicia, klasikur nawarmoebTa msgavsad. Sileris TiToeuli drama iwyeba savse da daZabuli momentiT, rac xSirad pirvel aqtSi xdeba. pirvelsave moqmedebaSi Cven ukve vgebulobT yvelafers, rac Semdeg scenurad gaiSleba dramaSi; is gavs Canasaxs, mcenaris Tesls, romelic iqceva mZlavr xed. gzadagza fabula viTardeba da Cven vaRwevT punctum saliens— mTavar punqts, saqmis arss, yvelaze mTavars. es is momentia, roca piesis dramatuli mxareebi gaxsnilia da gawonasworebuli, roca nawarmoebis gmiri dgeba arCevanis winaSe—wavides an erTi an meore gziT—gadawyvitos situacia amaRlebulis misadagad, an ver aRmoaCndes amisi gakeTebis unari da wavides tragediis mimarTulebiT. amis Semdeg tragedia Tu amaRlebuli scenurad ganviTardeba da yvelaferi sruldeba ise rogorc saWiroa. magram, ise, rogorc beThovenis bolo simebian kvartetSi, sakamrisia Tundac erTi noti miumatoT an gamoakloT partituras, rom igi mTlianad daingreva. zustad aseve, Sileris dramebSi yvelaferi absoluturad aucilebelia, vinaidan isini saboloodaa daxvewili da dasrulebuli.

magram tiki brZanebs, "ratom unda qondes yvelafers dasasruli? yovelgvari dasasruli dasaSvebia, radgan asec SeiZleba moxdes". gavixsenoT "xelovanni"—pirveli strofi, ideis pirveli warmodgena, misi damuSaveba; bolo strofi imeorebs igive ideas, ufro maRal doneze. anda gavixsenoT Sileris sxva nawarmoebi: "Jana d¢arki". esaa mSvenieri mowodeba adamianis misiis Sesaxeb. mwyemsis qaliSvili Rebulobs misias; igi aTavisuflebs safrangeTs; vardeba tyveobaSi. magram is axerxebs Tavis daRwevas, roca safrangeTi kvlav aRmoCndeba saSiSroebis winaSe da aRwevs amaRlebulis dones. erTi da igive idea mocemulia dasawyisSive, moqmedebs siuJetis sxvadasxva daZabul viTarebebSi, TandaTanobiT xdeba ufro Semecnebadi auditoriisaTvis da bolos aRwevs umaRles dones. ai aseTia xelovnebis nawarmoebis klasikuri forma.

klasikur meTodSi Tavisufleba da aucilebloba erTi da igivea. am meTodis Tavisebureba isaa, rom konfliqti unda gadailaxos maRal doneze, sadac araviTari dapirispireba ar arsebobs. esaa nikolas kuzanelis[26] Coincidentia Oppositorum (dapirispiebulTa damTxveva)—is eqvivalenti, romlis umaRles doneze araa araviTari konfliqti. Silerma amitomac gviTxra: "adamiani metia sakuTar bedisweraze".

Cven SegviZlia gavanaTloT da gavwvrTnaT sakuTari emociebi, ise rom momavali problemis gadalaxvisas daufiqreblad vendoT maT. Cven gadavlaxavT problemas da ar gadavdebT gverdze. romantikosi ki gadadebs da sxva raime sasiamovnos ipovis. amitom, mTavari haines naTqvamSi Semdegia: romantizmis waqezeba avadmyofobaa. goeTe romantizms uwodebda suliT avadmyofTa bodvas.

gadavinacvloT ukan, klasikur saberZneTSi. solonma, Sileris Tanaxmad, kacobriobis miznad aRiara yofierebis srulyofa. mTel klasikur periodSi, yovelTvis iyo mcdeloba, gaexadaT adamiani ufro srulyofili, ufro mSvenieri, ufro ganviTarebuli Tavis talantebSi. Tumca oligarqia yovelTvis raRacas Cadioda, amis sawinaaRmdegos. aseve, nebismieri imperiuli mmarTveloba yovelTvis cdilobda adamianis sisuste eqcia masze Zaladobis sarbielad. aviRoT Tundac romis imperiis magaliTi da SevadaroT igi dRevandelobas—holivudis filmebs: "gladiatori", "hanibali" da misT. Tu Tvals gadavavlebT romis imperiaSi gavrcelebul Sexedulebebs xelovnebis Sesaxeb—romelTac gamoxatavdnen ovidiusi[27] (Ovid), seneka, lukansi (Lucanse)—vnaxavT gamaognebel aRweras, Tu rogor Wridnen nawilebad adamianebs brZolis velze, rogor mosCqefs sisxli maTi sxeulidan da a.S. da a.S.

Tuki erTxel gaamxecebT adamians amgvari istoriebiT, maSin imasac SeZlebT, rom igi aqcioT pavlovis sacdel ZaRlad. pavlovis am cdaSi ZaRls aZleven saWmels da Tan rekavs zari. amas imeoreben mravaljer. Semdeg rekaven zars, magram saWmels ar miarTmeven. ZaRls nerwyvi mainc mosdis, rogorc Wamisas. es zustad isaa, rasac holivudis filmebi adamianebs ukeTebs: filmSi naCvenebi seqsi, pornografia, garyvnilebis sxva aqtebi dasababs aZlevs nerwyvis denas, ukacravad, sxva ramisas (sicili darbazSi).

film "hanibalis" mTavari gmiri, romelsac igive saxeli qvia, kanibalia. man gadawyvita moiWras tvinis garkveuli nawili, Sewvas da miirTvas. gaakeTa kidec es. amas uCveneben internetSi! sul axlaxan, germaniaSi, aseTi skandali moxda. erTi homoseqsuali meores internetiT daukavSirda. maT gadawyvites Sexdnen erTmaneTs, erTimeore daasaWurison, moWrili organoebi Sewvan da miirTvan. Tqves da Seasrules kidec, Tumca erTerTi maTgani Semdeg sisxlisagan daicala da mokvda. es namdvili ambavia! am sisaZagles giyvebiT sruliad gamiznulad: Tanamedrove kultura savsea aseTi simaxinjeebiT. Cven unda SevZloT amis ukan davinaxoT oligarqia da misi is saSualebebi, romelTa meSveobiT is akontrolebs Cvens azrebs. Cven unda gamovimuSavoT sakuTar TavSi absoluturad jansaRi Sinagani grZnoba, yovelive amis msgavsis srulad ukusagdebad. amitom, nu naxavT nurc erTxel msgavs filmebs, nu miscemT uflebas simaxinjes CagiZvreT sulSi. sxvanairad, amas eqneba iseTi xangrZlivi eqo, romelic didxans Tan gagyvebaT, rac ubedureba iqneboda.

"ibikusis weroebi"[28]

Sinaarsisken

adrec mogaxseneT, rom klasikur xelovnebaSi simaximjes qonda Tavisi daniSnuleba, kerZod, mZafri efeqtis miRweva. minda gagacnoT nawyveti Sileris mSvenieri poemidan "ibikusis weroebi". es lamazi ambavia.

vinc ar icis misTvis vityvi: poeti ibikusi midis mgosanTa festivalze, saberZneTSi. is marto miemgzavreba, sruliad marto. gzaze daxvdeba ori yaCaRi. is poetia da ar gaaCnia saTanado Zala mklavSi, winaaRmdegobis gasawevad. mas klaven. aravinaa am ambis mowme, mxolod weroebma gadaufrines im adgils, im momentSi. "aravinaa irgvliv Cemi mkvlelobis mowme. amitom weroebo, me Tqven gavalebT iyoT Cemi SurismaZieblebi"—Tqva ibikusma da mokvda.

mgosanTa festivali Sedga. aq movidnen poetebi saberZneTis yvela kunZulidan da yvela qveynidan. yvela Zalian Sewuxebulia, rom maT Soris araa ibikusi. mogrovdebian did darbazSi. scenaze gamova SurisZiebis qalRmerTebisagan—eriniebisagan (Erinnyes), Semdgari gundi. es tipiuri berZnuli Cveulebaa: gundi mReris da yvelani yvebian Zvel adaT-wesebze. mkvlelebi Zalze Sewuxebulni arian eriniaTa iq yofniT. rodesac gundi Camova scenidan, mkvlelebi dainaxaven weroebs. mxolod maT icodnen, Tu ras niSnavda aq weroebis gamoCena. isini erTxmad wamoiyvireben: "SexedeT, es xom ibikusis weroebia". am moulodneli aRelvebiT yvela mixvda raSic iyo saqme. mTeli darbazi erTxmad yviris: "vin warmoTqva ibikusis saxeli? mxolod is SeiZleba iyos misi mkvleli. SevipyroT isini da gadavceT sasamarTlos".

Sileri wers, maT sakuTari Tavi gamoaSkaraves ara imitom rom sindisma SeawuxaT. isini ise garyvnilebi gaxlavan, rom SeuZlebelia sindisi gaaCndeT. zebunebrivi Zala aiZulebs maT gamoaSkaravon sakuTari Tavi. es Zalaa nemezida (Nemesis)—samarTliani SurisZiebis qalRmerTi. nemezida aris umaRlesi kanoni, bunebis kanoni, romelic moqmedebs, romelic uzRavs damsaxurebul sasjels. (¼)

aq simaxinje ganixileba klasikuri Tvalsazrisis mixedviT. gvelebi da xvlikebi sazarelia, magram eqvemdebarebian kontrols. "is vinc mkacri da seriozuli saxiT, Zveli adaT wesTa Sesabamisad, neli mozomili nabijiT, sxvebis win gabRenZili miabijebs", aseve eqvemdebareba kontrols, magram is simaxinjea, gakontolebuli simaxinje. amas moyveba siCume "TiTqos sadRac Soriaxlo RvTaeba gamoCeniliyos". saSineleba jer ar misula Tavis dasasrulTan, fantaziisa da ocnebebis usasrulod waqezebis pirobebSi. aq simaxinje mxolod gamoyenebulia rogorc foni zebunebrivis iq yofnisaTvis, rogorc mizezi RvTaebis—nemesisis iq yofnasaTvis. nemesisis idea Tan gasdevs Sileris mTel Semoqmedebas: SeiZleba vinmem scados daarRvios bunebis kanonebi, magram SeuZlebelia didxans aviciloT nemesisis sasjeli amisaTvis.

sxva SesaniSnav nawarmoebSi—"mesineli sacole" (Die Braut von Messina/The Fiancée of Messina), Silerma Tqva, rom WeSmariti xelovneba TamaSi araa. mas akisria metad seriozuli mizani—adamianis gardaqmna WeSmaritad Tavisufal pirovnebad, man unda gaaRviZos masSi Zala—dramis, poziis Tu musikis meSveobiT. xelovneba adamians aZlevs saSualebas marTos materialuri samyaro ideebis meSveobiT.

am gzaze mSveniereba Seucvlelia, vinaidan igi akeTilSobilebs adamians, masTan uSualo kontaqtis Semdegac ki. magram simaxinjesac aqvs xangrZlivi efeqti. Tu naxeT raime uSno—maxinji filmi magaliTad—is didixans darCeba TqvenSi. mas ver moicilebT sakuTari sistemidan.

me aq davasruleb, magram erTs davamateb: modiT, yvelam erTad, vaqcioT mSveniereba Cvens mTavar saqmed. igi aucilebelia adamianisaTvis; mwams, rom amerika SeZlebs gaxdes mSvenieri.

Sinaarsisken

dokumentis dasawyisisken

 

 



[1] e.w. "beibi-bumeris" Sesaxeb, ix. sxva statiebi amave krebulSi. (n.g.)

[2] hip-hopi (Hip-hop/Hip hop), ewodeba axalgazrdobis subkulturas. igi warmoiSva 1970-iani wlebis bolos, aSS Savkaniani axalgazrdobis wreSi. daaxloebiT aTi wlis Semdeg gaxda mravli qveynis axalgazrduli kulturis nawilic. hip-hopisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Taviseburi musika (e.w. repi/rap), qoreografia, mxatvroba, kinematografi da misT. (n.g.)

[3] abreviatura "pop-musika"_"popi" (Pop-music/Pop), ixmareba ori azriTfarTe azriT is aRniSnavs e.w. "popularul" musikasmusikas, romlis "momxmarebelia" farTe publika, magram is araa arc "xalxuri" da arc "klasikuri"; vrceldeba masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebiT. viwro azriT "pop-musika" niSnavs Tanamedrove axalgazrdobaSi gavcelebul musikalur mimarTulebas, romelSic rogorc wesi ar igulisxmeba "jazi", "bluzi" Tu "qanTri". amaTTan SedarebiT is "martivi" Sesasrulebelia, rac xels uwyobs mis gavrcelebas. avtori pop-musikas ganixilavs am viwro gagebiT. (n.g.)

[4] am statiis avtori, helga zep-la-ruSi, lindon la‑ruSis meuRlea. la-ruSis Sesaxeb ix. am saitze. (n.g.)

[5] Holy Alliance (Ńâ˙ůĺííűé ńîţç)—ruseTis, prusiisa da avstriis mier daarsebuli "wminda kavSiri"; miznad isaxavda venis 1815 wlis kongresis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaTa Sesrulebisaken mimarTul Zalisxmevebs. (n.g)

[6] Kallias _ fr. Sileris werilebis seria, miwerili misi megobrisadmi, k.g.kornerisadmi, 1792 wlis miwurulidan. werilebi da pasuxebi Seexeba mSvenierebis filosofiur sakiTxebs. ingl. Targmani ix. Sileris institutis publikaciebSi.

[7] ludvig tiki (Tieck, 1773-1853), germaneli romantikosi mwerali.(n.g.)

[8] avgust vilhelm Slegeli (Schlegel, 1767-1845) da fridrix Slegeli (1772-1829) Zmebi gaxlavan. oriveni romantizmis wamyvani Teoretikosebi iyvnen (venis romantikosTa wridan). avgusti erTerTi dafuZnebelia SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisa, xolo fridrixi—germanuli indologiisa. (n.g.)

[9] Friedrich Carl von Savigny, 1779-1861, me-19 s. gavleniani germaneli iuristi. (n.g.)

[10] Barthold Georg Niebuhr, 1776-1831—germaneli saxelmwifo moRvawe da istorikosi. (n.g.)

[11] Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) akademiuri profesori, romelic cnobilia uzarmazari raodenobis msmenelebiT. iyo iuristi, politikuri moazrovne. cnobili iyo xazgasmuli da WeSmariti kaTolicizmis gamoc. misi ideebiT dainteresebuli iyo mravali filosofosi, maT Soris iyvnen valter beniamini (ix. sq. # ) da leo strausi (sq.# ). (n.g.)

[12] novalisi, literaturuli fsevdonimi fridrix fon hardenbergis ((Novalis, 1772-1801), germaneli poeti da filosofosi, romantikosTa ienas klubis warmomadgeneli. (n.g.)

[13] e.T.a. hofmani (Ernest Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann, 1776-1822)germaneli mwerali, kompozitori da mxatvari (karikaturisti). profesiiT iyo didad gamocdili iuristi. Tvlian rom man didi gavlena iqonia fsiqologebze karl iungze da zigmund froidze. (n.g.)

[14] Pierre Luis de Maupertius, 1698-1759, frangi maTematikosi, filosofosi. (n.g.)

[15] Pietro Pomponazi (Retrus Pomponatius, 1462-1525), italieli sqolastikosi filosofosi. (n.g.)

[16] qr. g. korneri(C. G. Körner, 1756-1813)-germaneli mwerali da iuristi, misi megobrisfr. Sileris mfarveli da nawarmoebebis gamomcemeli. misi Svili, karl Teodori (1791-1813)germaneli poeti da dramaturgi, vil. fon humboldtis da fr. Slegelis megobari. Teodori daiRupa sabrZolo operaciaSi. (n.g.)

[17] Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtungcnobarebi uTiTeben gamosvlis 1795 wels da ara 1796-s. (n.g.)

[18] klemens meternix-vinneburgi, (Meternich 1773-1859), avstrieli Tavadi, iyo avstriis sagareo saqmeTa ministri, bolos kancleri. (n.g.)

[19] Friedrich von Matthisson,1761-1831, germaneli poeti,

[20] Samuel P. Huntington, 1927-2008, amerikeli politologi. (n.g)

[21] Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski, d.1928, amerikeli politologi. (n.g)

[22] kaTolikuri eklesiis flofenciis kreba (Council of Florence): dasawyisSi Seikriba bazelSi (Sveicaria) 1431 wels (Council of Basel), gagrZelda 1439 wels florenciaSi (italia). (n.g)

[23] Heinrich Heine, 1797-1856, germaneli poeti da Jurnalisti. (n.g)

[24] Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), germaneli Teologi da filosofosi. (n.g)

[25] zusti dasaxeleba: Lysergic acid diethylamide; es e.w. lsd-narkotikebi, gamoiyeneba 1950 wlidan, e.w. "reivebSi", rac britanul iglisurSi (rave) daaxlobiT igivea, rac post-sabWoTa, iataqveSa "tusovkebi" da [dasavluri] diskotekebi. narkotikTa es jgufiromelsac bolo dros sxva saxeli, "eqstazi" Searqves, iwvevs eiforias, zRvargadasul aRfrTovanebas. (n.g.)

[26] Nicholas of Cusa (Nikolaus Krebs,1401-64), nikolas kuzaneli—kardinali, XV s. udidesi germaneli moazrovne, filosofosi da Teologi, maTematikosi. (n.g)

[27] Publius Ovidius Naso (Zv.w. 43 – a.w. 17 Tu 18), cnobilia rogorc ovidiusi (Ovid), romaeli poeti. (n.g.)

[28] Sileris balada, ibikusis weroebi Die Kraniche des Ibykus.